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Volume 5 Issue 11

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Shadow Detection and Removal from a Static Image

Authors : Farhana Aktar, Iffat Ara, Dr. Pallab Kanti Podder

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For human eyes it is not difficult to distinguish shadows from objects. However, in most situations, identifying shadows by computer is a challenging research problem which is a type of segmentation problem in digital image processing. In real time systems, the automated path finding robots can easily detect obstacle and take alternate path but the problem is that they also consider shadow as a part of obstruction. In this project a hybrid algorithm is proposed to detect and extract cast shadow from a still image using mask thresholding and structuring element feature. The shadow is removed with appropriate energy functions. The proposed algorithm consists of two modules. The first module gives the detection of shadow whereas the second module gives the removal of shadow. Exploiting the geometric property of shadow, structuring elements and morphological operations, cast shadow region is extracted. Finally, it is remapped on original image to visualize the extracted region. The energy functions like additive model, basic and advanced model and YCbCr models are used. Some of the important applications can be in processing satellite images, object tracking in video and, image matching and enhancement.

01-07
2

Title : New Approach to the Dark Energy Problem Solution and Consequences

Authors : Branko M. Novakovic

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The consequences of non - vacuum solution of the field equations in derivation of the universe motion model are discussed. Thus, the inclusion of the gravitational energy - momentum tensor EMT and the exclusion of the cosmological constant Λ in field equations generates both repulsive and attractive gravitational forces. The repulsive gravitational force has a role of the dark energy source. Regularity condition of the related line element gives the limitations to the gravitational radius r that is greater than GM/2c2 and less than infinity. This means that presented solution has no singularity at the minimal radius. The minimal diameter Lmin of the universe mass M is equal to 2rmin = GM/c2 that corresponds to the Planck’s length Lpl = GMpl /c2, as the minimal diameter of the Planck’s mass Mpl. From the universe velocity equation, we obtain the limitations to the energy conservation constant κ that is greater than zero and less or equal to one. This means that the kinetic energy is less or equal to the potential energy. For that case the spatial curvature of the spaceis greater or equal to zero. In other words, our universe is a flat or a hyper-spherical, because hyperbolic universe is excluded. Further, the zero points of the universe velocity equation determine the minimal gravitational radius at rmin = GM/(1+κ)c2 and maximal gravitational radius at rmax = GM/(1-κ)c2. Applying radial density ρr = M/r to the minimal and maximal gravitational radiuses we obtain the other limitations to the energy conservation constant κ that is greater than zero and less than one. For that case the spatial curvature of the space is greater than zero. This means that our universe is a hyper-spherical because flat and hyperbolic universes are excluded by the mentioned limitations.

08-13
3

Title : Is the Planck’s Length the Shortest Meaningful Length in Space-time?

Authors : Branko M. Novakovic

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The Planck’s length Lp, is believed to be the shortest meaningful length as the limiting distance below which the regular notions of space and length surcease to exist. Any attempt to investigate the possible existence of smaller distances, by using higher energy collisions, would result in black hole production. This is the consequence of the vacuum solution of the Einstein’s field equations that predicts the singularities and the related black holes in the extremely strong field. Recently, it has been developed a new Relativistic Alpha Field Theory (RAFT) that extends the application of General Relativity Theory (GRT) to the extremely strong fields at the Planck’s scale. One of the predictions of RAF theory is: there exists a minimal gravitational radius at r = (GM/2c2) that prevents singularity at r = 0, i.e. the nature protects itself. If RAF theory is correct then one can find out the following consequences of the existence of the minimal radius in a gravitational field: a) each mass has its own minimal radius, b) the minimal radius of the Planck’s mass is equal to half of the Planck’s length, c) the smallest minimal radius in a gravitational field belongs to the particle with the smallest mass and d) the Planck’s mass is not the smallest mass in the spacetime and therefore the Planck’s length is not the shortest meaningful length. Thus, it has been theoretically confirmed that the physical significance of the Planck’s length is the minimal length (diameter) of the Planck’s mass.

14-20
4

Title : Use of Thermal Sensors for Fall Detection in a Simulated Toilet Environment

Authors : Satoshi Shirogane, Hitomi Takahashi, Kenji Murata, Satoshi Kido, Tomoya Miyasaka, Tadafumi Saga, Shuhei Sakurai, Toyohiro Hamaguchi, Toshiaki Tanaka

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Falls are likely to occur in a toilet. However, people typically are alone when they use the toilet; thus, if a fall occurs, it may be difficult to ask for help. Therefore, we constructed a fall detection system using a thermal image sensor that cannot distinguish details, such as a face, and has high suitability for the toilet environment. In this study, we investigate the influence of the sensor position on the fall discrimination rate.

Sensors were installed at four locations and normal toilet movements and falling postures were recorded using eight healthy adults. Discrimination formulas were prepared using thermal images obtained for four subjects, and discrimination rates of falling postures were calculated for the remaining four subjects, which were then compared relative to sensor positions.

The highest discrimination rate (95.7%) was obtained with the sensor installed in front of the toilet at the height of the body center of the subject sitting on the toilet. The lowest discrimination rate (60.2%) was obtained with the sensor installed in front of the toilet and close to the ceiling with respect to the subject sitting on the toilet.

To detect falls using thermal imaging, sensor positions should be based on various factors, such as whether the entire body can be imaged relative to the falling posture without depending only on the height and direction or whether the difference between normal activity and falling posture is clear, including the environment of the toilet and the assumed fall situation.

21-25
5

Title : Development of a Support System for Voice Outputs and Character Recordings in Communication via the “Mouth-shape Character” Method

Authors : Tomoya Miyasaka, Norio Kato, Mamiko Kamoshida, Keiko Kawashima, Toshiaki Tanaka

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The "mouth-shape character" is one of the communication means of ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) patients and caregivers. Although this means allows communication between the patient and the caregiver without using any tools, it is a burden on caregivers to utter speech sounds and record characters. The purpose of this study is to develop a support system for speech utterances and character recordings in communication via the mouth-shape character method. The prototype support system (proto-system) consisted mainly of an electric character board and a speech voice recognition module. Using the proto-system, the communication experiments were conducted by healthy subjects role-playing both the patient and the caregiver, and the system operability was evaluated. A control experiment was performed using the conventional mouth-shape character method and the results using these two methods were compared. Although the communication speed in the proto-system was slightly inferior to that of the mouth-shape character method, the accuracy of the confirmed character recordings by the former method was high, indicating the possibility of reducing the burden on caregivers. In addition, since speech recognition adapted to the caregiver's voice can be used as an input trigger, both hands of the caregiver remain free, and the potential for a reduction in the caregiving workload was obtained.

26-31
6

Title : Development of a Three-Dimensional Magnifying Visual Information Display System to Support the Daily Activities of the Visually Impaired

Authors : Toshiaki Tanaka, Norio Kato, Tomoya Miyasaka, Masatsugu Sakajiri

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There are 310,000 visually impaired people in Japan, about 80% of whom are said to have low vision. Optical aids such as magnifying glasses (loupes), monocular devices, and reading magnification systems are used in daily life. However, these assistive devices are not used widely or for many purposes. Moreover, two-dimensional visual magnification also interferes depth perception and interaction in three-dimensional (3D) space. To eliminate the impediments of low vision, better design and the provision of assistive devices in a range of settings are needed. For this research, we developed and tested wearable 3D magnifying glasses designed to compensate for vision loss and support activities of daily living in older people and those with low vision. These glasses consist of a head-mounted display (HMD) with built-in miniature cameras and are capable of performing rapid 3D magnification of objects captured by the cameras before presenting these images to the display. An HMD with built-in miniature charge-coupled device cameras has a wired connection to a control terminal and is operated by a Bluetooth remote control. The operator can also operate the control terminal from an operator terminal connected by Wi-Fi. The cameras feature two horizontally installed miniature CMOS color image sensors. The display unit has a resolution at least as good as VGA (default resolution 640 x 480) at both left and right. Adjusting screws are installed at both sides to allow focus adjustment and binocular parallax. Built-in speakers were also added to enable the use of an audio guide. It was also possible to achieve specifications as follows; image processing function modes and external input display mode. In order to evaluate the effect of the specifications by using the HMD, the Questionnaire survey of the usability of the prototype HMD was conducted in 10 participants (9 men, 1 woman; age range, 20–22 years) with visual impairment (low vision). The results showed that the 3D-HMD might be effective for the visually handicapped person and the elderly to assist the reduced visual acuity. It was suggested that the improvement in converted visual acuity using the HMD could enhance the accuracy (e.g., precision, speed) of communication aimed at the visually impaired compared with existing devices. In the future, this HMD needs to be studied in a larger sample using several reliable test methods that take less time and thus place less burden on participants.

32-35
7

Title : The Impact of the Qualities of Anime Culture on the Entertainment Consumer in Romania

Authors : Adrian Nicolae Cazacu

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In the context of globalization, Romania has assimilated many foreign cultural influences. One of these is the influence of the culture based on Japanese animation, called the anime culture that led to the opening of a market for the products of this culture in Romania. In the present study, we intend to analyze the influences of qualities attributed to this culture and anime products upon the purchase decision, both among young people and other segments of the population. For this purpose, we will use the results of previous research, which we intend to analyze from a new perspective, using specific indicators. The purpose of this study is to highlight the educational impact of the anime on the audience of any age, but especially on young people in Romania.

36-38
8

Title : Connections between Planck’s and Gravitational Parameters

Authors : Branko M. Novakovic

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New Relativistic Alpha Field Theory (RAFT) extends GR to the extremally strong gravitational field, including Planck scale. In this theory, for spherically symmetric Planck mass, the minimal gravitational length (diameter) is equal to Planck length. Thus, minimal gravitational radius of Planck mass is equal to half of Planck length. The ratio of Planck mass and Planck length is constant, Mp/Lp=c2/G. Generally, in gravitational field, the ratio of mass M and minimal Gravitational length Lg is also constant, M/Lg=c2/G, and the same as the ratio of Planck mass and length. This fact is employed in this paper for derivation of the connections between Planck’s and gravitational parameters. In that sense, the Gravitational length, time, energy and temperature are presented as the function of the Planck length, time, energy and temperature, respectively. This opens possibility for application of QFT to the gravitational field. The existence of a minimal radius in gravitational field means that no singularity in that field. Since the most minimal gravitational radius belongs to the minimal mass, the Planck length is not the shortest meaningful length in space-time.

39-44
9

Title : Energy Momentum Tensor Generates Repulsive Gravitational Force

Authors : Branko M. Novakovic

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Solution of the field equations by including gravitational energy – momentum tensor in it (but without cosmological constant Λ) generates repulsive gravitational force. This repulsive force could be the source of the dark energy. Regularity condition of the related line element gives the limitations to the gravitational radius GM/2c2 ≤ r < ∞. This means that presented solution has no singularity points. Minimal diameter of the universe mass 2r = GM/c2 corresponds to the Planck’s length Lpl = GMpl /c2, as the minimal diameter of the Planck’s mass Mpl.  From the universe velocity equation, we obtain the limitations to the energy conservation constant 0 < κ ≤ 1. This means that the kinetic energy is less or equal to the potential energy. For that case the spatial curvature of the space is ≥ 0. In other words, our universe is a flat or a hyperspherical, because hyperbolic universe is excluded. Further, the zero points of the universe velocity equation determine the minimal gravitational radius at rmin = GM/(1+κ)c2 and maximal gravitational radius at rmax = GM/(1-κ)c2. Applying radial density ρr = M/r to the minimal and maximal gravitational radiuses we obtain the other limitations to the energy conservation constant 0 < κ < 1 and to the spatial curvature of the space > 0.  In that case our universe is a hyperspherical because flat and hyperbolic universes are excluded by the mentioned limitations.

45-52
10

Title : Mastery Learning in the Modern Context

Authors : Ishita Gupta

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This paper analyses whether mastery learning can be effectively introduced into the education system, with a specific focus on India. By presenting successful data studies on the experimental implementation of Mastery Learning, it discusses the significance of the findings and highlights the potential drawbacks of the widespread implementation of the learning philosophy and its feasibility into the real world.

53-56
11

Title : Development of A Road Surface Discrimination Device for Preventing Falls during Winter Walking - Built-In to Shoes and Verification on Frozen Surfaces -

Authors : Satoshi Izumiya, Keisuke Kon, Hiroki Matsuzaki, Tamotsu Mitamura

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In areas with cold winters, snow worsens road surface conditions and causes icy roads that are likely to induce falls. Pedestrians need to use anti-slip products and observe the road surface to avoid falling. However, because it is unrealistic to constantly walk attentively, people exhibit only temporary alertness and cautiousness. Therefore, we developed smart shoes that aid in road surface perception. In this study, we manufactured a device to obtain necessary road surface information, in an effort to clarify whether the surface characteristics of a frozen road surface can be obtained when the device is incorporated into the shoes. In addition, we examined whether useful indicators had been obtained to determine the road surface.

The participants were three healthy adult men without any difficulties in walking. The measurement was performed in the winter as the participants walked on an outdoor frozen road.

The differences between the dry and frozen road surfaces tended to appear at the end of the swing phase, as seen in the road surface information results (reflected light and road surface temperature).

After fabricating a device capable of obtaining road surface information and performing walking experiments on actual frozen surfaces, the results suggest that road surface information can be obtained, even during wintertime walking. This device also enables the acquisition of useful indicators for road surface determination. 

57-61
12

Title : Implementation of the Technology Revolution 4.0: Monitoring and Measurement of Temperature, Distribution Current at Transformers Using Internet of Things

Authors : Suprianto Bambang, Budi Santoso Agus, Rijanto Tri

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Distribution transformer is the heart of the distribution network. Distribution transformers are expected to work continuously to supply electricity to customers. The emergence of disturbance in the distribution transformer results in damage to the transformer and interruption of power distribution to the customer. One of the disturbances in the distribution transformer can be caused by a short circuit or overcurrent loading which results in an upward current from nominal as well as an increase in winding temperature or around the transformer. This study aims to design and build a prototype of a current and temperature parameter monitoring system on an IoT-based transformer to improve efficiency, lifetime and to know the transformer's condition in real-time. The results of this study indicate that the prototype when compared to amperes pliers can respond to 3 phase current values ​​that are read with an average measurement error or error accuracy per phase current R = 1.0%, S = 1.8%, T = 1 , 7%, and the average measurement error or temperature error accuracy per phase R = 3.1%, S = 5.8%, T = 8.0%.

 

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