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Volume 4 Issue 6

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : The Effect of Organic Flaxseed Paste on The Colorimetric Parameters of Demineralized Tooth Surface

Authors : Marlene Azlia Abd Raffur, Izzati Mohd Shaharuddin, Luay Thanoon Younis

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Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of flaxseed paste on the surface lightness (L), chroma (C) and hue (h) of extracted teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human teeth (incisors and canines) were selected and grouped into control (no treatment), flaxseed (treatment) and fluoride (positive control) groups. Teeth in control group were placed in saline throughout the experiment, whilst the teeth in flaxseed and fluoride groups were immersed in a carbonated drink for two days to induce demineralisation prior to the treatment using fluoride toothpaste and 1gm/ml of freshly prepared flaxseed paste respectively. The values L, C and h were measured at 3 stages (initial, during treatment, after treatment) using a spectrophotometer. Computerized digital imaging analyses were performed using Photoshop CS6 software (Adobe, San Jose, CA, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: At the final reading, spectrophotometric analysis showed decrease in L in both positive control and test groups. Fluoride was more effective, but not significant, in reducing the lightness (L=55.69 ± 5.38, p=0.070) than flaxseed (L=67.60 ± 5.34, p=0.070). The mean C value was higher in flaxseed group (C=2.75 ± 2.73, p=0.010) compared to fluoride group (C=2.78 ± 2.73, p=0.010). In contrast, the mean h value for flaxseed group was much lower (h=121.50 ± 10.53, p=0.000) when compared to fluoride group (h=260.02 ± 10.53, p=0.000). Conclusion: Flaxseed paste has shown to be effective in reducing L. Although fluoride toothpaste produced obvious decrease in L, organic flaxseed paste shows promising effect in alleviating surface lightness, hence enhancing tooth surface mineralisation that may be explored further in future research.

01-09
2

Title : A Numerical Study of the SVC-Controlled Electric Power System Dynamics

Authors : Der-Cherng Liaw, Jun-Wei Chen, Yun-Hua Huang

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A numerical study of nonlinear dynamics for electric power system with the Static Var Compensator (SVC) control is presented in this paper. In the previous design (Liaw et al, 2009), we have proposed A sliding mode control (SMC) based output tracking scheme for regulating the load voltage of the electric power system. In this paper, we will extend the previous design to consider the effect of the load variation. The relationship between the time constant of SVC controller and the changing rate of load variation is obtained by using numerical study, which will then guarantee the success of the voltage tracking design with respect to the variation of both reactive power and real power.

10-15
3

Title : Optimization of Welding Frictional Parameters by Inserting the Dowels of Beech in Douglas-Fir Wood Substrate

Authors : Ibrahim Busuladzic, Izet Horman, Ninoslav Beljak, Esed Azemovic

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The wood welding technique has been developed as a new technique for joining wooden parts without the use of adhesives, and with the help of heat developing due to friction and pressure on the joint.  The friction may be realized by vibration or rotation. Wood welding is a process in which chemical-physical reactions occur. During the welding process, the surface layers in the wood elements (lignin) were broken into mutual contact, which was initiated because of the influence of pressure and heat which is most often achieved under the influence of the friction of the elements we are interfering with. The paper presents the results of our own exploration of the impact of the penetration of the beech dowels into the substrate of Douglas/fir on the basis of pulling force. Within the experimental investigation we have observed differences between the direction of penetration of the dowel in the hole with (and without) changing the profile of the pre-drilled hole for insertion and the impact of the bond withdrawal strength in relation to the angle between axes of penetration and the line of tree rings.

16-20
4

Title : Time-Independent Schrodinger Equation as a Straight Line Equation in Cartesian Coordinates

Authors : Wojciech Szczepankiewicz

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A graphical interpretation of the time-independent Schrödinger equation in the Cartesian coordinate system for the explicitly set wave function of the ground state and selected excited states of the hydrogen has been presented. It was shown that the equation left-sidedly multiplied by the function ψ allows to find its didactic connection with the course of the beam of light emitted by the hydrogen atom in the measuring system of the spectroscope equipped with a prism.

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Title : Acoustic (Ultrasonic) Non-Diffracting Beams: Some Theory, and Proposals of Acoustic Antennas for Several Purposes

Authors : Michel Zamboni-Rached, Erasmo Recami

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On the basis of a suitable theoretical ground, we study and propose Antennas for the generation, in Acoustics, of Non-Diffracting Beams of ultrasound.  We consider for instance a frequency of about 40 kHz, and foresee fair results even for finite apertures endowed with reasonable diameters (e.g., of 1 m), having in mind various possible applications, including remote sensing.  We then discuss the production in lossy media of ultrasonic beams resisting both diffraction and attenuation.  Everything is afterward examined even for the cases in which  high-power acoustic transducers are needed (for instance, for detection at a distance —or even explosion— of buried objects, like Mines).

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Title : A Simple Method to Obtain the Generation Lifetime in MOS Capacitors

Authors : O. Malik, F. Temoltzi-Avila, F. J. De la Hidalga-W

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This paper describes a new simple method for the estimation of the generation lifetime in MOS capacitors fabricated on high resistivity silicon substrates. In this method, the transition between the strong inversion initial steady state and the non-equilibrium deep depletion state occurs by applying a triangular gate voltage. The mathematical model of the proposed method is presented. The generation lifetime value, τg = 517 ± 40 µs, obtained with our current-triangular sweep voltage method agrees with the 510 ± 30 ms value obtained by the C-t Zerbst method, and the 517 ± 15 ms value obtained by using the I-C-t characteristics for a pulsed MOS capacitor. The results obtained in this work show that the proposed simple method is useful as an express monitoring tool for an estimation of the generation lifetime.

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7

Title : Serum Prohepcidin and Serum Ferritin The Diagnostic And Prognostic Markers in Primary Abdominal Solid Tumours of Paediatric Patients

Authors : Dr Ab Bari Shah, Dr Farooq Ahmed Andrabi, Dr Rafia Subhan

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MATERIAL & METHODS- This study conducted in the Department of Paediatric Surgery and the Department of Immunology & Molecular Medicine Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Srinagar, is a prospective study. The study comprised of twenty patients with primary abdominal solid tumours between the age group of 2 to 15 years and twenty normal controls between the age group of 2 to 15 years from Kashmir valley. Complete surgical excision of resectable tumours was done, while in unresectable tumour cases, only biopsy was taken & tissue diagnosis was made by histopathology. In all the cases, venous blood samples were taken before and after surgery upon proper consent. We took venous blood samples in all the controls upon proper consent. From the samples, the serum after separation was stored at −20o C until processed.  We used only once thawed samples to measure serum prohepcidin and serum ferritin levels according to proper procedures and protocol prescribed in the kit.

Results; shows correlation of post-operative serum prohepcidin with hematologic and iron parameters and inflammatory markers in solid tumours. The positively correlation between pre-operative serum prohepcidin level with haemoglobin and the negative correlation between post-operative serum prohepcidin level with ESR and post-operative serum ferritin.

Conclusion; serum ferritin and Prohepcidin are important biochemical marker in intra-abdominal tumors and its estimation is helpful in diagnostic and prognostic estimation of inta abdominal tumors but the thing is normal range of prohepcidin estimation which is to be elucidated yet.

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8

Title : Quantum Gravity in Relativistic Alpha Field Theory (QG in RAFT)

Authors : Branko M. Novakovic

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Classical quantum gravity approach is presented in the frame work of the new Relativistic Alpha Field Theory (RAFT).  It is very important to describe gravity at the Planck’s scale and near compact astrophysical objects where quantum effects cannot be ignored. Meanwhile, General Relativity Theory (GRT) cannot be applied to the extremely strong gravitational field at the Planck’s scale, because of the related singularity. Recently developed RAF theory extends the application of GRT to the extremely strong fields, including Planck’s scale. This is the consequence of determination of field parameters by using condition that they should satisfy both relativistic Hamiltonian and field equations with energy momentum tensor. As the result, we obtain, among the others, the following prediction of RAF theory: there exists a minimal gravitational radius at r = (GM/2c2) that prevents singularity at r = 0. The existence of the minimal gravitational radius opens a new avenue for quantization of a gravitational field. One of the possible approaches is presented in this paper.

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9

Title : Diversity and Abundance of Insects Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Authors : Stephanie Mdzuami Adelusi, Raymond Tersoo Ada, Edward Agbo Omudu

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Insects are unique in their own way and contributes all types of services to the ecosystem. In order to develop effective global insects’ conservation strategies there is the need to target species at local or regional scales. The current study was therefore designed for the very first time to document the diversity and abundance of insects in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Five sites reflecting different levels of disturbances and different land use covers were selected within Makurdi metropolis: Hudco Quarters North Bank (HQN), Benue State University Zoological Garden (BZG), Gyado Villa (GYV), High Level (HLV) and Akpehe (APH). Insects were collected from the months of October to November 2017. Three methods of insect collection were used; Pitfall method, Sweep net method and Hand Picking. Diversity indices were measured at each site using Simpson’s, Shannon, Menhinick’s and Margalef’s indices, while similarity between sites and trapping methods was assessed using Sorensen’s similarity index. There was no significant difference in the diversity of insect species between sites (F (4, 50) =0.000375, P>0.05), However, GYV had the highest diversity index and Species Richness (d) but lowest dominance Index, while, APH had lowest species richness and highest dominance. When the indices were converted to Shannon Effective number of species (ENS) to show the true diversity, GYV had the highest value for ENS while BZG had a lowest value. This is an indication of dominance because where there is a high degree of dominance; the ENS value will be less than the species richness. The Order Odonata was the most dominant and it occurred at BZG than all the other sites. Sorensen’s similarity index between sites was from 89% to 100%, an indication that all insects can occur at all sites. There was a significant difference between the trapping methods (F (2, 17) = 6.7965, P<0.05) with the sweep net having the highest average catch. However the similarity between trapping methods was approximately 67% between sweep net and pitfall while it was 53% between hand collection and sweep netting. This difference in the trapping method possibly accounted for the high numbers of winged insects in the collection. The ENS of the area was 7, this is low, but also an indication that more effort should be channeled into insect monitoring and conservation.

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10

Title : The Evaluation of Pulmonary Solid Nodules for Resection Surgery

Authors : Giorgio Maria Paolo Graziano, Antonio Di Cataldo, Antonino Graziano

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Introduction Pulmonary neoplasia is diagnosed or advanced, or when the radiological appearance of the neoplasm leaves little doubt. Lung cancer is the most common in men with 16% of all tumors and an epidemiological increase in the neoplasm that in recent years has achieved a mortality that has increased progressively, reducing only in the last decade in Europe because of the continuous anti-smoking campaigns. The study aims to address the controversial controversies on the characteristics of the pulmonary nodule with the proposal of a diagnostic algorithm adopted by us in clinical practice to obtain an early diagnosis and in a short time Materials and methods January 2017 to December 2017 at the II Clinical Surgery and Polyclinic II University of Catania presented to our observation n 7 patients aged between 4 and 60 years old age 50 years of which 4 males and the remaining 5 female patients . In patients with suspected small pulmonary nodule the information obtained was based on a chest radiograph and a subsequent CT scan. Results The discussion of the morphology of the pulmonary nodule studied with diagnostic method for CT images the prevailing morphological characteristic was the diameter of the lesion that oscillated on average between 3-4 cm, and the criteria adopted did not clarify with accuracy the nature of the solid formation but hypothesize the benign or malignancy of suspicious lesions. Below these minimum diameters we obtained a safety with TC and RNM methods only in 50% of the observed cases, so in consideration of the high number of cases that were unresolved it was preferable to use more effective diagnostic methods. Discussion In the presence of solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules they have proved effective in obtaining a diagnosis according to the literature and also in our experience, in the first phase the simple but sensitive dynamic CT test, which oriented the diagnosis towards the benignity of the nodule for the presence of an increase in density after administration of the MDC that was less than 15-20 HU. PET proved to be a more accurate instrumental examination in the characterization of the nodule. Introducing the analysis of the metabolic behavior of the lesion studied, integrating the data provided by the CT. Conclusions Diagnostic imaging has improved accuracy by reducing diagnostic doubt only in those nodular lung lesions above> 2 cm. Radiological criteria for defining mediastinal lymph nodes are essentially the size and the morphological appearance.

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Title : Which Laparoscopic Treatment in Pancreatic Pathology?

Authors : Giorgio Maria Paolo Graziano, Antonio Di Cataldo, Antonino Graziano

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Pancreatic cancer is in Italy the fourth place among the causes of death in women, which still maintains a poor prognosis with only 7% of men and 9% of women who have a 5-year survival. the highest incidence of the disease is between 6 and 7 decade of life. the aim of this study is to obtain treatment indications that are well codified with the possibility of extending their applications to perform both derivative and resective interventions .Materials and methods: From January 2010 to December 2017 at the department of specialized surgical science II of the AOU Policlinico di Catania were observed in 32 patients with pancreatic neoplasm of which women 22 and 10 men, with a mean age of 65 (58-72.a) The symptomatology was characterized by jaundice, weight loss, steatorrhea, onset of diabetes without an apparent reason, impaired intestinal motility (constipation and diarrhea), intolerance to fatty foods. 10% of the cases had a family history defined with at least 2 degree relatives affected by pancreatic neoplasm. the histological study obtained before the oncology therapy and with an endoscopic ultrasound method that was essential in defining the nature of non-neoplastic lesions, and we obtained a diagnosis of: ductal adenocarcinoma in 8 cases, of serous cystadenoma in 2 cases, cystic mucinous in 6 cases , intraductal in 3cases, acinar cells in 4 cases, similar papillary in 3cases, and neuroendocrine in 6 cases. Results : In the preoperative diagnosis the immunophenotypic profile was necessary to define the histological typology characterized by the ductal differentiation for the production of mucus. acinar differentiation for enzyme production, and neuroendocrine for chromogranin positivity. The tumor marker ca19.9 was positive in 100% of the cases observed with metastatic disease with a positive prognostic value of decrement in the postoperative period in those cases in which the resection of the tumor was carried out. Diagnostic-stapling laparoscopy was indispensable, at the time of diagnosis, were: 1) laparoscopy exploration revealed in 30% of cases the presence of metastases not shown with the usual procedures of preoperative staging. 2) The laparoscopic evaluation showed a positive predictive index of 100%, of the cases, and negative in 97% of the cases observed with a diagnostic accuracy of 97%. 3) Unsurpreted metastatic diffusion was more specifically reported in body-caudal tumors (30%) and cephalic lesions (20%). 4) Staging diagnostic laparoscopy Study the M parameter of tumor disease, with visualization of the surface of the abdominal cavity and of the liver, in order to exclude the presence of small, often multiple, peritoneal or sub-glissonian metastases which, if present , made the intervention useless.Discussion: Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery interventions, regardless of the tumor site and the type of intervention, even in the feasibility, are not yet fully accepted on the oncological level. This is due to both the reduced number of cases of resectable pancreatic carcinoma and the reduced number of laparoscopist surgeons dedicated to pancreatic surgery. (25,26,27,28) All this makes it more difficult to undertake multi-center studies that can demonstrate the oncological correctness of the method. The diagnosis then becomes mandatory in those cases in which the suspected tumor is high where the histological material is obtained before the intervention with a tissue sampling with trans cutaneous biopsy with multiple thin needle with a risk of low complications, in the presence of lesions resection. (29,30,31,32), Conclusions: From the results obtained, the indication emerges definitively to a standard diagnostic-stadiative laparoscopy, which allows to define with considerable accuracy the TNM action steps, with a modest impact on the time of use of the operating room. Laparoscopy in expert hands is a useful tool for pancreatic surgery not only for diagnosis but also for resective and palliative surgery.

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Title : The Effect of Compensation to Detection Fraud in Village Government (Empirical Study on Sub-District of Pasirian, District Of Lumajang)

Authors : Trisna Ayu Oktavia, Yosefa Sayekti, Whedy Prasetyo

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The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of compensation to detection fraud in village government (empirical study on sub-district of pasirian, district of Lumajang). Fraud cases happened not only in central government sector, but also village goverment. Population of this study consisted of 30 of village government’s servant in Sub District of Pasirian, District of Lumajang. This study used regression analysis. The result of this study showed the negative effect of compensation on fraud in Sub-District of Pasirian, District of Lumajang.

 

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13

Title : A Survey on Security, Privacy and Trust in Mobile Crowdsourcing

Authors : Manali Bhavsar, Snehil Dahima

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With the popularity of sensor-rich mobile devices (e.g., smart phones and wearable devices), Mobile Crowdsourcing (MCS) has emerged as an effective method for data collection and processing. Compared with traditional Wireless Sensor Networking (WSN), MCS holds many advantages such as mobility, scalability, cost-efficiency, and human intelligence. However, MCS still faces many challenges with regard to security, privacy and trust. This paper provides a survey of these challenges and discusses potential solutions. We analyze the characteristics of MCS, identify its security threats, and outline essential requirements on a secure, privacy-preserving and trustworthy MCS system. Further, we review existing solutions based on these requirements and compare their pros and cons. Finally, we point out open issues and propose some future research directions.

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14

Title : An Adaptive Robust Control for Trajectory Tracking Of a Robotic Manipulator System

Authors : Bin Ren, Yao Wang, Lilan Liu, Xiaowei Tu, Rogelio Lozano

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The conventional adaptive control algorithm has a very high real-time requirement for six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) series robotic manipulator system. When the unknown parameters of the robotic manipulator are mutated, it is difficult to ensure the stability of the robotic manipulator system. Aiming at this phenomenon, an optimal algorithm based on adaptive robust control is proposed. When the algorithm is applied to the robotic manipulator system, the actual trajectory at the end of the manipulator is as close as possible to the desired trajectory in the simulation. The algorithm is based on the conventional algorithm, the design of the sliding mode surface to reduce the system position error, adding robust control algorithm to compensate for the instability of the system. The simulation results show that the actual trajectory can quickly track the desired trajectory, and the position error approaches zero. 

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Title : Neutral Heteroatomic Components in Thermohydrolytic Processing Products of Sapropelites

Authors : V.Yu. Rokosova, P.V. Goryunova, Yu.V. Rokosov, N.N. Rokosova

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Neutral heteroatomic components obtained during processing of Kushmurun (Kazakhstan) and Maoming (China) sapropelites in autoclaves under conditions of oxidative-hydrolytic destruction of their organic mass were studied using chromatographic-mass spectrometry and chemical informatics methods. Neutral oxygen-containing components in the products of thermohydrolytic processing of Kushmurun coal and Maoming oil shale are mainly represented by alkylmethylketones of normal structure (up to 60%) in the distribution ranges from С10 to С25. In smaller quantities, arylalkylketones (up to 10%), alkylphenols (up to 22%) and indanols (up to 7%) are identified. The appreciable content of alkyl aromatic compounds, characteristic for the samples of sapropelites studied, is apparently due to a peculiar diagenetic aromatization of the sapropelic starting material. The obtained results showed that the method of thermohydrolysis of sapropelites is quite suitable for elucidating their structural features caused by processes of diagenetic or catagenetic aromatization.

 

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Title : Missionary Politics of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the 19th century in Albanian Geography

Authors : Dibran Vataj, Shkelqim Gashi

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XIX. Century, for Albanian geography is a period of irreversible. The source of the changes that took place in this century was the European states, which led to the beginning of a process involving not only the Albanian people but all the Balkan nations. In this paper, it is said that the period of the XIX. Century, the missionary activities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, especially in the territory of Albania. In addition, relations between Albania and the Ottoman Empire and the region, the political and cultural situation of the XIX.Century will be discussed. The religious and linguistic missions of the Austro-Hungarian Empire with Catholic priests in Albanian geography will also be the subject of this work. Supports made by the Austro-Hungarian state to the Albanian State will be discussed in the discussion part of the research. In this paper, the information about the functioning of the Catholic Church will be examined in details. In addition, Latin alphabet and books introduced by the opening of Albanian schools and the Austro-Hungary Empire will also be evaluated in this paper.

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Title : An Initiative to Improve Quality of Software Testing Techniques and Calculating Total Number of Failures using Bayesian Method

Authors : Vaibhav Sancheti, G. Srikari Sharma

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The current concern regarding quality of evaluation performed in existing studies reveals the need for methods and tools to assist in the definition and execution of empirical studies and experiments. This paper discusses those issues specific for evaluation of software testing techniques and proposes an initiative for a collaborative effort to encourage reproducibility of experiments evaluating software testing techniques . This paper also proposes the development of a tool that enables automatic execution and analysis of experiments producing reproducible research compendia as output that is, in turn, shared among researchers. There are many expected benefits from this endeavour, such as providing a foundation for evaluation of existing and upcoming STT, and allowing researchers to devise and publish better experiments. Total number of failures of a software system can help practitioners to have a better understanding of the software quality. This paper proposes a model to predict the total number of software failures in a software system by analyzing the failure data from testing using failure data and code coverage are combined in a Bayesian way. The methodology is applied to real world failure data to validate its predictability. The predictive accuracy of our model is also evaluated with different methods. The results of our experiment show that our proposed model can provide a very good estimation of the total number of failures. The estimation is stable from a very early point on.

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Title : Design and Implementation of a Microcontroller Based Three Tier Security Lock System

Authors : Iliya Mailabari, Kile Samuel Awuna, Aliyu Musa Kida

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Security has being a major concern for humans since time immemorial. Several approaches towards protecting our homes and offices have being used over time. But there has being consistent failure in the security apparatus employed. This research employs the use of a three tier approach that uses a combination of secret multiuser card, voice recognition and code which will be controlled by an arduino microcontroller. It also uses a master code in case of emergency should the other approaches fail. The system performance was evaluated and the results gotten showed that it has more reliable as compare to other existing system.

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19

Title : Design Considerations of Shock Absorber for Land Cruiser

Authors : Dr. Aung Ko Latt

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The shock absorber is an essential part of the automobiles suspension system. This research paper is intended to design the calculations of shock absorber for Landcruiser. The purpose of the shock absorber is to control spring and suspension movement. In this research paper, the type of shock absorber used is the twin-tube type applied with electrorheological fluid and nitrogen gas. Suspension system is the combination of various types of spring which include leaf springs, coil springs, shock absorbers, air springs and torsion bars. These are used in sets of four for each vehicle. The purpose of this research paper is how to consider and design calculations of shock absorber from the required known data such as piston diameter, rod diameter, electrorheological liquid density, applied electric potential and moderate damper speed. This data had been applied in the following design procedure. It had been calculated the volumetric flow rate through the tube, the viscous pressure drop, shear damper force and damping force. In this paper, the shear damper force is 4 k Pa. The viscous pressure drop is 1.731 M Pa and damping force is 2270 N.

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Title : Design and Performance of Vertical Axis Helical Cross-Flow Turbine Blade for Micropower Generation

Authors : Ei Ei Nwe, Dr. Aung Ko Latt

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This paper is intended to generate the optimum helical cross-flow turbine blade for generating the electricity. As the helical blade shape sweeps along the circumference of rotation of the turbine, some portion of the blade profile is located at the optimum angle of attack even in static or slowly rotating conditions, which allows for a more uniform starting torque that less dependent upon turbine azimuthal position. The forces acting on the blade are different by designing the blade profile. And then the pressure and velocity flow through the turbine are differing. In this paper, Hydrofoil NACA0018 and NACA 0020 are compared by using Profili Software. And then, NACA0018 is chosen based on max CL/CD ratio at angle of attack 9 ͦ. Blade design is made of wood with length (0.476m) and chord (0.1m). Steel shaft diameter and length are (0.012m) and (0.775m).Turbine test is performed in canal in front of Mandalay Technological University. According to the experimental results, it can produce 370 Watts at water velocity 2.5m/s. Finally, the pressure and velocity distribution of water on the blade are simulated by ANSYS Fluent software.

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