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International Journal of New Technology and Research

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(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Online Journal)
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Volume 2 Issue 9

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Title : Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors : Suneet Gupta, Kapil Kapoor

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Wireless Sensors requires energy for communication,sensing and processing. Mechanisms are discovered to reduce the communication between the sensors .Multicasting in Wireless Network is the technique where there is one sender and multiple receivers. That means there is no need of broadcasting . But my proposed model is using mulicasting and it also uses the inherent broadcasting  property of Wireless links.This model  is based on demand based  protocol strategy  where the initiation for receiving the data  starts from the destination.This model assumes that a unique id is given to all the sensors. Another assumption in my model is that there are multiple receivers and only one source node. Each receiver is using a different session for searching and receiving information from the source node.Sink node which has  interest in receiving  data from  source will broadcast a search message and then nodes in the communication range of sink will supply a feedback message which contains the  id of sensor node sending the feedback  message. After this step selection of path or reservation will take place.Path selection is done according to the id of the source node. An id of sensor node is selected which is nearest to the source node id. Along with this an entry is made in the sensor node whose id is selected.This  is achieved by utilizing the feedbacks send by sensor  nodes.According to my model, reservation means that when a sensor node finds some already present entry in some other sensor node, And if that entry belongs to some other receiver then sensor node will make an entry in other sensor node so that when the information is transmitted from the source node to other receiver then it will be received by the sensor node which has done its registration. Registrations are performed so that only least number of sessions related to other receivers will be active and less number of nodes to be used while sending data  from the source node. Simulation showed less number of nodes are used while the information is coming from source node.


Title : Study of Skewness Angle in Reinforced Concrete Girder Bridges

Authors : Mohan Lal, Vedpal , Ravinder Kumar

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A very limited study has been carried out in the field of skew bridges and even that does not hold much relevance in Indian perspective due to difference in design live load standards and type of bridges being built there. Therefore it does not provide any help to designers regarding the quick estimation of design bending moments and shear forces which are of prime interest. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the effect of skewness directly on the design parameters i.e. B.M, Shear Force and Maximum Reaction in simply supported RC T-Beam 3 lane bridges. For this purpose a parametric study of Simply Supported 3-Lane T-Beam Bridge has been performed in STAAD PRO. The parameters varied were span and skew angle. The effect of same was observed on maximum live load bending moment, maximum live load shear force and maximum live load reaction at critical locations. Live Load “Class 70R Tracked “and “Class 70R Wheeled” were applied as per IRC 6 guidelines. The spans used were 10 m, 15 m, 20 m and 25 m. The skew angles were taken at an interval of 150 starting from 00 up to a maximum of 600. Bridges with skew angle more than 45 0 are rare.From the study it was observed that as the skew angle increases from 00 to 600there is a consistent reduction in Moment Distribution Factor (MDF) of the inner longitudinal girder of bridge. Similar trend of reduction in MDF were observed for other spans. This suggests that skew bridges designed, ignoring the skew effect is conservative with respect to the bending moment. The effect of skew angle was also studied on the shear coefficients. The shear coefficients as increases almost linearly with skew angle and span. Hence it can be concluded that proper estimation should be made in the live load shear when designing skew bridges.  


Title : Influence of Gamma Radiation on Microbial and Viscosity Parameters of Henna Based Hair Colour

Authors : Jayaganesh Sankar, Jainendra Malakar, Bachan Singh Rawat, Venkataramana Arbettu Padmanabha

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Henna has been used as a cosmetic hair dye for 6,000 years. The leaves are reduced to fine powder and mixed with water, to form a paste, which is applied to the hair for deliver the colour and conditioning to the hair.   In recent years, the dye intermediate and oxidizing agent like sodium perborate/ barium peroxide also mixed with henna powder to deliver the desired colour to the hair.  The combinations of selective dyes, oxidation agent, along with henna powder deliver the variety of shades to the hair.   Article deals with the influence of gamma radiation among the colour delivery, microbial population and viscosity of henna paste.  Exposure the henna powder in to gamma radiation does not affect the colour delivery; gamma radiation does not affect the dye intermediates as well as lawsone content also.  Gamma irradiation of henna powder drastically reduced the microbial population when compared to the untreated control.  Accidently noticed that the viscosity of henna paste dropped by gamma irradiation process.  Exclusively articles deals with the optimum dosage of gamma radiation with respect to viscosity and microbial population. Study results revealed that optimum dosage is 8 KGy in terms of microbial and viscosity parameters.   Irradiation of henna powder has to improve the hygienic quality of the product and extended the shelf-life of the products and it is stand alone in the export markets/international business.  


Title : Prediction of Ultrasonic Velocities in Binary Liquid Mixtures of N,N,Dimethyl Acetamide With Certain Amines

Authors : V. Sravanthi, P. Paul Divakar, K. Samatha

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Ultrasonic velocity and density values have been measured for the binary liquid mixtures   of N,N Dimethyl Acetamide as a common component with Diethylamine, Diethanolamine and Benzylamine at 303, 308, 313 and 318K over the entire composition range. Theoretical velocity values have been evaluated by various relations viz., Nomoto, Free Length Theory (FLT), Van deal and Vangeel  ideal mixing relation (IMR), Impedance Dependence Relation (IDR), and Junjie for three binary liquid mixtures. An attempt has been made to compare the merits of the relations and the relative applicability of these theories to the present systems have been checked and discussed. The results are explained in terms of intermolecular interactions occurring in these binary systems. The deviation in the variation of  U2exp / U2 imx  from unity has also been evaluated for explaining the non-ideality in the mixtures



Title : A Second Order Fuzzy Differential Equation for The Case of A Semi-Confined Aquifer

Authors : Christos Tzimopoulos, Christos Evangelides, Kyriakos Papadopoulos, Basil Papadopoulos

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Differential equations are encountered very often in engineering problems and generally in al sciences. Modeling the effect of variation of physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, velocity, stress, strain, current moisture and many other on engineering problems requires most of the times the establishment of differential equations. For simplicity reason the parameters and variables involved which are measured or estimated from experience are considered exact even though they often contain uncertainties. One way do deal with these uncertainties nowadays is through convex fuzzy sets. According to all the above it is almost unavoidable to introduce fuzzy parameters and variables in the solution of differential equations. Much research was carried out during the recent years in theoretic and applied subjects containing fuzzy differential equations with H-derivative. This method though, in some cases has some disadvantages leading to solutions with increasing support as time t increases. In order to alleviate this disadvantage the generalized differentiability (G-H derivative) was introduced. In this paper the case of a semi-confined aquifer is studied, which is bounded on top by a thin semi-permeable layer and on bottom by an impermeable layer. This system leads to a second order differential equation with fuzzy boundary. The solution of this problem is obtained using the generalized H-derivative.


Title : Antifungal and Antiaflatoxigenic Effects of Mentha Longifolia Essential Oil Against Aspergillus Flavus

Authors : Saeedeh Dehghanpour-Farashah, Parissa Taheri

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Mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds poses serious health hazard to humans and animals. Aflatoxins, which are mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive, could be produced by certain strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, A. nominus and A. flavus. An aim of this study was to examine the antifungal activity of various essential oils(EOs) obtained fromM. longifolia, Nepeta asterotricha, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Ferula assa- foetida and Heracleum persicum against A. flavus. Comparing the effect of EOs obtained from five plant species mentioned above showed that at 2000 ppm concentration all EOs tested were capable of inhibiting mycelia growth of A. flavus ranging from 100% to 18%. The highest and lowest levels of antifungal effect were obtained using M. longifolia and Heracleum persicum, respectively.Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses were applied to determine the constituents of M. Longifolia oil, as the most effective EO in suppressing A. flavus growth. Obtained data indicated that the main compounds of this EO were limonene (1.7%), 1,8-cineole (2.2%), 1-borneol (1%), isopiperitenone (1.3%), piperitenone (18.7%) and piperitenone oxide (70%). Spore germination of A. flavus was completely inhibited by IC50 and MIC concentrations of M. longifolia EO. Whereas, these concentrations of the EO had no inhibitory effect on sporulation of the fungus. Morphological changes of A. flavus via application of M. longifolia EO at IC50 concentration were compared with control and considerable alterations in the hyphae and conidiophores of treated samples were observed. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus significantly decreased at MIC concentration of M. longifolia EO compared to control. Only aflatoxin B1 was detected at low concentration using the MIC level of this EO. So, the EO obtained from M. longifolia might be used as a biological agent to decrease mycelial growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus for protecting crops from this toxigenic fungus.



Title : The Influence of Colour on Consumer Brand Personality-A Generalized Study in Indian Context

Authors : Siddharth Batra

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From  beverages  to  consumer  electronics,  marketers  are  using  colour  in  innovative ways. As  a  marketing  tool,  colour  attracts  consumers  and  can  shape  their  perceptions. Through  colour,  a  brand  can  establish  an  effective  visual  identity,  form  strong relationships  with  a  target  market,  and  position  itself  among  competitors  in  the marketplace, as the classic case of Coca-Cola versus Pepsi  illustrates.

To distinguish itself from its main competitor, Pepsi moved away from red and embraced the colour blue, spending millions of dollars on marketing initiatives, such as painting a Concorde jet in its signature blue colour (Cooper 1996).
Colour sells products. It is a powerful marketing tool that  significantly influences consumer purchases, so much so that it  accounts for 85% of the reason why someone decides to  purchase a product (Hemphill  275).
Marketers must understand the psychology of colour in order to  use it effectively. Nearly all products sold today have colourful  facades.  Selecting the right colours to use has an enormous  impact on product sales. While no single set of rules governs  colour choices, research has established general guidelines  based on the principle of associative learning, the relationship  between colour and emotion.

The  study  was  mainly  conducted  to  understand   how  colour  affects  consumer perceptions and to provide a framework and  empirical evidence that draws on research in aesthetics, colour  psychology and associative learning to map hues onto brand  personality dimensions. In order to demonstrate how colour  influences consumer brand perceptions through referential  meaning, we map findings from previous work on colour associations to items in the brand personality scale and develop hypotheses for the four dimensions. The study focussed upon nine independent colour variables (white, yellow, pink, red, orange, black, purple, brown, green) and their influence on the four brand personality dimensions i.e. dependent variables (sincerity, excitement, sophistication, ruggedness) .
The study was carried out on 100 Indian respondents, with final   sample size of 88, who were selected using non-probability  convenient sampling.          

A self-designed standardized  questionnaire was the main instrument of data collection. The  data  were  collected  using  the  research  instrument  and  were  presented on  the  basis  of  demographics  like  age, gender, religion, education  and occupation etc. It also covers interpretation of descriptive  statistics followed by hypothesis testing for 88 cases measuring  the influence of different colours or hues on different brand  personality dimensions viz. sincerity, excitement, sophistication  and ruggedness. The results of the data analysis provided strong support for the relationship between colour and brand personality.


Title : Percutaneous Mitral Commissurotomy in Patients with Calcific Mitral Stenosis

Authors : S.Amellal, N.ElHaitem, N.Loudyi, D.Dourafei, N.Fellat, R.Fellat

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Objective: the study evaluated the clinical and echocardiographic data, before and after percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) in patients with calcific mitral stenosis.               Materials and methods: this is a retrospective study of 215 patients divided into two groups: 148 patients with calcific mitral stenosis (Group 1), and 67 patients without mitral calcifications (Group 2). The study period is between January 2011 to July 2015.Results: the group 1 was significantly older than the group 2 (49,7±12,2 (group 1) versus 42,7±12,8(group 2) , p<0,001), and had significantly more men than women (female gender:75% in group 1 vs.88,1% in group 2, p<0,05). Before PMC: group 1 had significantly higher Wilkins (9,3±0,8(group 1) vs. 8,5±0,6 (group 2)   p <0,001) and smaller mitral valve area (0,91±0,20 (group1)  vs.0,99±0,20 ( group 2), p<0,05). After PMC: the final valve area was significantly smaller in patients with, than, without calcifications (2,10±0,26 vs.2,20±0,22  p<0,05). However , the rate of good immediate results, defined as valve area ≥1,5 cm² with no mitral regurgitation >2/4 ( 97,9%vs.100% , p> 0,05), and the rate of post PMC mitral regurgitation (MR≥3/4) (2% vs.0% , p>0,05), were no different between the 2 groups.Conclusion: PMC can be used for the treatment of patients with calcific mitral stenosis safety, with good immediate results.   


Title : Routing Protocols

Authors : Suneet Gupta, Kapil Kapoor

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Wireless sensor are scarce resource so therefore Various Algorithms are there which are described in this paper.This paper contains algorithms which are location based ,hierarchical, data centric etc.


Title : Power Consumption and Equivalent Quantum State in Nano Circuits Comprising of Carbon Nano Resistors in Different Configurations

Authors : Ashrafuz Zaman Sk., Dr.Ranjit Choudhury

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The field of carbon nano  tubes (CNT) is an active and emerging area of research  with many promises, theoretically as well as experimentally[1],[2]. In fact, the band structure of CNT determines its conductivity and in carbon nano tubes the structural pattern affects the conductivity type .It is well established Phenomenon that samples of single wall carbon nano tubes with the arm chair wrapping have been produced and exhibit metallic behaviour  . In this paper we consider the carbon nano resistors, which are in fact conductors.            To remind you all about the striking features of CNT  that occur in practice such as quantized electrical behavior  of  resistance, resistivity, drift velocity  and energy of electron in one dimensional extremely thin  carbon nano tubes or wires etc,  with the help of these beautiful inherent properties researchers  have already advanced in many applied and  theoretical  aspects  of CNT see for instance ref.[1],[2],[3] and [4].In the similar fashion ,we would like to concentrate on the already established  quantized result of the power consumption in CNT[4] and quantized expression of  current density[3] in order to determine the cumulative power consumption in electrical circuits on nano scale ,employing different and several nano resistors  in simple series ,parallel and mixed grouping configurations of the resistors  .Finally,  some  more  nice results  are achieved for equivalent quantum state of CNT replacing  all the component  quantum  resistors in series, parallel and mixed grouping configurations.



Title : The Effects of ICT Usage on Irrigation Farming in Bongo District of Upper East Region, Ghana

Authors : Francis Yao Anyan

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The study made an attitude assessment of irrigation farmers of Bongo District of Upper East Region of Ghana to find out the effect of ICT usage of on their farming activities. Structured questionnaire was used to gather information from one hundred and fifty five (155) farmers. The questionnaire completed by the farmer participants sought general demographic data which include gender, age and education level .Also information relating to land acquisition, irrigation and the use of ICT tools in their farming activities was sought. Responses from the study were analyzed using both descriptive and analytical statistical tools.

It was reveal from the study that the most common ICT tools used by the respondents include:Mobile phone, radio, television and computers. Another remarkable finding that the reveals was that ICT has no effect on irrigation farming in the study area.


Title : Vibrotactile Mechanism for Proprioceptive System

Authors : Sana M.K.

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Good balance and mobility are necessary in order to independently perform acts of daily living and to avoid falls causing injuries or hospitalization. Three sensory systems in the body are primarily responsible for detecting and maintaining balance. These are visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. They work together to maintain balance. In a normal individual, the existence of a sensatory pressure below the foot is indicative of his/her body balance. This sensatory pressure has a threshold value, below which the individual loses body balance and this threshold value increases with age.

  The project aims at improving the balance of elderly people by filling the sub threshold region, by providing a mechanical vibration to the foot. This is done with the help of a vibrator motor. Force sensors are used to measure the foot pressure. Vibrator is switched on, only when the output from force sensor is less than the threshold value of detection. Thus, output from the vibrator is given to the position where most crucial mechanoreceptors are located and they are the metatarsal phalangeal joint (MTP) region, the heel and the plantar side of the first toe. Hence, mechanical vibration can increase the intensity of signal and overcome the threshold value of detection and thereby help elderly people maintain body balance.

  This device not only helps in improving body balance in elderly people but also finds its application in gait improvement, gait stabilization in Parkinson’s patients and relaxation foot massages.


Title : Modeling and Simulation of Shunt Active Power Factor using Synchronous Detection Method

Authors : Sana M.K

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Active power filters (APFs) provides an effective measure to eliminate the power line harmonic/reactive currents generated by nonlinear loads or by distributed energy sources that are connected to the grid. In order to mitigate the harmonics, active power filters (APFs) are used. APF overcomes the drawbacks of passive filters by using the switching mode power converter (VSI) to perform the harmonic current elimination. Active power filters are typically connected in parallel to the harmonic/reactive current sources and cancel the harmonic/reactive components in the line current so that the current flow into and from the grid is sinusoidal and in phase with the grid voltage. In this paper, a three phase shunt active power filter using synchronous detection method with a hysteresis current control technique is presented. 


Title : Professionalism in Adult Education: The Surest Way for Effective Administration of Adult Education in Nigeria

Authors : Muhammad Alkali PhD

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The quality or output of any organisation or programme depends to a very large extent on the competence and efficiency of its human resources or personnel. All serious minded organisations spend a very high percentage of their capital in manpower development in order to bring out the quality of the goods or services that will stand them out for success. The need for adequate training and retraining of the human resource of any organisation becomes a matter of optimum survival and as such cannot be toyed with. It is therefore pertinent that the issues of qualified personnel and professionalism be given a second more serious attention if adult education must contribute to national development. Consequently, in adult education being a very important component of education for the socio-economic development of any nation can only succeed if professionalism is given its rightful place. This paper therefore seeks to look into ways Adult education management can be effective in Nigeria through ensuring professionalism.


Title : Establishment and Analysis of Microbial Communities Capable of Producing Methane from Grass Waste at Extremely High C/N Ratio

Authors : S. Matsuda, T. Ohtsuki

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Acclimation of microbial communities, aiming to methane production from grass as a sole substrate at extremely high carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, was conducted.  In a series of experiments with various sizes of added grass, two microbial communities showing high methane production were obtained with powdered grass.  In the two microbial communities designated NR and RP, Bacteroidia including genera Bacteroides, Dysgonomonas, Proteiniphilum, and Alistipes were detected as dominant members in eubacteria.  It was also shown that Methanomicrobia and Methanobacteria including genera Methanomassiliicoccus and Methanobacterium were found as dominant members in methanogen.  It is noteworthy that nitrogen fixation were observed both in NR and RP, suggesting that insufficiency of nitrogen sources would be complemented by uptake of nitrogen from gaseous phase in culture.


Title : The Impact of Governance on the Performance of Lebanese Firms

Authors : Dr. Jamal Hayek

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This study discusses the concept of the performance of Lebanese companies in particular the role that governance plays on this performance. A good performance is a target in the eyes of management, shareholders and even employees. The study aims to analyze the performance measures, compare the results found in the literature to validate or challenge assumptions of the study.


Title : Generalizing and Neutralizing

Authors : Mukesh Chopra

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This research paper deals with a new concept (generalizing and neutralizing) to overcome any possible problem we face in life to the extent that the failure we encounter loses its base and becomes void. The first section deals with the properties of this new concept followed by 5 case studies: having the intelligence tag, rubbishing criticism, facing life’s tragedy, overcoming rejection and college issues. 


Title : A Technical Approach on Large Data That Is Distributed Over a Network Using Link Mining

Authors : Suhasini Gadala

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Data Mining is nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown and potential useful information from the databases. For a database with number of records and for a set of classes such that each record belongs to one of the given classes, the problem of classification is to decide the class to which the given record belongs. The classification problem is also to generate a model for each class from given data set. We are going to make use of supervised classification in which we have training dataset of record, and for each record the class to which it belongs is known. There are many approaches to supervised classification. Decision tree is attractive in data mining environment as they represent rules. Rules can readily expressed in natural languages and they can be even mapped through database access languages.

     Now a day’s classification based on decision trees is one of the important problems in data mining   which has applications in many areas. Database system has become highly distributed, and we are using many paradigms. We consider the problem of inducing decision tree in a large distributed network of highly distributed databases. The classification based on decision tree can be done on the existence of distributed databases in healthcare and in bioinformatics, human computer interaction and by the view that these databases are soon to contain large amounts of data, characterized by its high dimensionality. Current decision tree algorithms would require high communication bandwidth, memory, and they are less efficient and scalability reduces when executed on such large volume of data. So there are some approaches being developed to improve the scalability and even approaches to analyse the data distributed over a network.

   A key challenge for data mining is tackling the problem of mining richly structured datasets, that is distributed and links between objects in some way. Links among the objects may demonstrate certain patterns, which can be helpful for many data mining tasks and are usually hard to capture with traditional statistical models. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this area, fueled largely by interest in web and hypertext mining, but also by interest in mining social networks, security and law enforcement data, bibliographic citations and epidemiological records. Data on the web is huge and distributed across various sites. The traditional approach is to integrate all data into one site and perform required analysis. The problem with this is its time consuming and not scalable, so we need to find more efficient algorithms to mine data that is distributed over the network.


Title : Agile Development Methodology and Testing for Mobile Applications - A Survey

Authors : Ganesh Prasad P, R Hamsini,Smitha G R

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Agile methods allow software teams to respond quickly to change. The agile approach reduces the schedule risk associated with traditional software engineering, in which integration of component parts is treated as a late-phase effort. Testing throughout the process as opposed to at the end of the project can bring a number of benefits for app developers, especially in the discovery of coding flaws or other bugs. When testing takes place on a regular basis during the development process, app developers and testing counterparts easily spot issues along the way and correct them as they go. This ensures that the project will continue smoothly and that any issues will be more easily corrected. Additionally, introducing test automation early, connecting functional along with even load and performance tests to Continuous Integration acts as a part of regression testing, where the development team takes responsibility for bugs in the code. This frees up dedicated testers and performance experts to focus on more complex use cases and determining test scenarios that cover areas outside the code, like infrastructure, corner cases and third party testing. This papers discovers different methodologies in agile that suits mobile application development along with testing.