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International Journal of New Technology and Research

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Volume 2 Issue 7

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Title : Non Dependence of Drift Velocity of Electron on Length of Carbon Nanotubes, Dependence on Quantum State and Expression of Current Density

Authors : Ashrafuz Zaman sk., Dr. Ranjit Chowdhury

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The field of carbon nano tubes (CNT) is an active area of research theoretically as well experimentally  [1,2]. It is established fact that samples of single wall carbon nano tubes containing tubes with an arm chair wrapping have been produced and exhibit metallic behaviour. In this paper, the quantized value of electrical conductivity is used to show theoretically that the drift velocity of electron is independent of the length of CNT and ‘Vd’, drift velocity varies inversely as the quantum state. From which we can express current density of electrons in CNT and can show current density too depends on quantum state.



Title : Redox-Sensitive Cross-linked Micelles Based on Disulfied Bond as Potential Drug Carriers

Authors : Ze-tong Xu, Qing-han Zhou

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A novel redox-sensitvie cross-linked micelles based on disulfide-linked copolymer were prepared and characterized as potential carrier for drug delivery. In this experiment N,N-bis(acrylate) cystamine (BAC) served as cross-linker, poly(e-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine) (PZLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) methyl ether methacrylate acted as comonomers. The molecular structure and characteristics of the cross-linked micelle was confirmed by 1H NMR and FT-IR. The copolymer was able to self-assembled into micelles, and the micellar nanostructure was investigated by DLS and TEM. The cross-linked micelles was designed to degraded into individual linear short chains in the presence of glutathione (GSH) by the cleavage of the disulfide linkages from the cross-linker BAC. All the results showed that the designed cross-linked polymeric micelles may be a promising carrier for drug delivery in intracellular reducing environment.


Title : A Simplified and Universal Mechanism Model for Prediction of Gallium Nitride Thin Film Growth Through Numerical Analysis

Authors : C.K. Hu, C.J. Chen,T.C. Wei, Tomi T. Li, C. C. Wang, C. Y. Huang, Y.J. Lin

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The crucial parameter required for predicting epitaxial thin film growth rates and uniformity is the chemical mechanism occurring in the gas phase and at the surface. To date, few studies have investigated the gallium nitride epitaxial mechanism in solid state lighting. A simplified chemistry derived from experimental observation has been used for this purpose. In this study, three numerical mechanism models are presented for verifying the growth rate of the gallium nitride (GaN) mechanism, and their results are compared with the growth rate results of previous literature studies. To reduce the calculation time of numerical analysis in commercial software, a numerical procedure is performed for simplifying the complicated mechanism of an epitaxial thin-film process. The mechanism models are developed through rate of production analysis. All the solution results could be compared in one schematic diagram, and the differences among these three mechanisms are extremely pronounced in high temperatures. The simplified reaction mechanisms are then used as input for a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT, enabling the accurate prediction of growth rates. Validation studies are presented for two different laboratory-scale reactors. For each study, the predictions reasonably agree with the experimental data, indicating the universality of the reaction mechanisms.


Title : Depiction of Post-War Hegemonic Masculinity in D.H. Lawrences Novel

Authors : Angelina Subrayan

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This study is focused on the analytical examination on masculinity in the classic fiction of D.H Lawrence. Based on the narrative data from the novel Aaron’s Rod (1922), this paper explores how and why hegemonic masculinity is conformed by the male protagonist. The consequences of social practices and socio-historical situation in which Lawrence scripted the novel is also examined. In view of the fact that the novel chosen is connected to Lawrence’s own life encounters, the author’s perception on masculinity is also studied. The discursive routes occupied by the male protagonist is examined established on Connell’s concept of hegemonic masculinity. As such, this analysis perceives the novel as supporting a postmodern situation highlighting numerous discourses which review the conventional concepts of hegemonic masculinity, but do not construct a contemporary representation of supreme masculinity in its place. This study may possibly postulate more profound perceptions into literary discourse that are fundamental for educators and social researchers to look beyond texts through the lens of masculinity studies.


Title : The Influence of Resource Inputs in the Professionalization of Higher Education in the University of Ngaoundere, Adamawa Region Cameroon

Authors : Asongwe Cyprian Foche, Professor Fonkeng Epah George, Dr Galy Mohamadou

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Given the important role higher education plays in the training and equipping of young graduates with professional skills and competences to better adapt to the exigencies of the employment market, this research probes into some of the indicators of professionalizationin the university milieu such as infrastructure, personnel and equipment. It assesses the human and material resources input in the professionalization process in the University of Ngaoundere. The study is a descriptive survey with a sample of three and eight students of the university. An open-ended questionnaire was constructed following the Likert Scale from 1-5, of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), not sure (NS), disagree (DS), and strongly disagree (SDA). The data was analyzed with SPSS Package, using regression analysis model. Findings reveals insufficient infrastructure and equipment, while teaching personnel assessment averagely reflects professionalization. 


Title : Enhancement of Image Transmission Using Chaotic Interleaver over Wireless Sensor Network

Authors : Wa’il A. H. Hadi, Hayder F. Y. Hussein, Ameer K. Jawad

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The wireless sensor networks different from classic wired networks, WMSN differs from other scalar network mainly nature and size of data transmitted, memory resources, and power consumption in each node for processing and transmission. The images broadcasting over wireless multimedia sensor networks that can be used in IEEE 802.15.4 (Zig-Bee) for short-range multimedia transmissions.

In this paper a strong interleaver mechanism prepared to reduce or immune a burst error of network , this can be done by applying the chaotic interleaving on the pixel, bit ,and chip. The enhancement simulation for bit error rate and peak signal to noise ration  by transceiver image cameraman though AWGN and Rayleigh fading  channels are displayed. While transmitting the image by 20 dB signal to noise ratio on the Rayleigh fading channel, an improvement on the peak signal to noise ratio of the received image from 25.9 dB to 78.4 dB can be observed.


Title : Multicystic Changes of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma: The First Case Report in the Literature

Authors : Gongbiao Lin ,Xingfu Wang ,Zheming Fang , Shuzhan Lan, Zixiang Yi

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Multicystic changes of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: the first case report in the literature. Otolaryngologists, pathologists, and radiologists had better pay attention to this infrequent incidence.


Title : Image Dehazing and Visibility Restoration Method

Authors : Sumati

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Signifying the necessity of areas concerning obstacle detection, object detection, traffic analysis, etc. in present day situation, the requirement for efficient and robust haze detection, estimation and haze removal has only risen. In this work, proposed a method to estimate, detect and remove the content of haze in an image. In order to achieve the above goal, implemented a laplacian based distribution curve to estimate the transmission map. After determining the haze thickness and removal of the haze content, a gamma correction method is applied to improve the quality of the image post haze removal process. The obtained results show the successful implementation of the haze estimation, removal and improvement in the quality of the image.


Title : Grips and Strings

Authors : Mukesh Chopra

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This research paper lays foundation to a new concept grips and strings. Grip is basically our subconscious mind and strings are our thoughts. In the first section, it explains the properties of grips and strings. Then example of how art applies to this concept with diagram is given. Further on, a total of 19 references or examples to show that this concept applies to everyday life are given. In the final stage the advantages of this concept like how to save ourselves from tension is explained and how we can escape the death grip using ‘Grips and Strings’ is written.


Title : Business Model Theory Evolution: Multi-Perspective Analysis

Authors : He Ning

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By analyzing the current literature, it’s obvious that although the management community has always struggled to reach a clear definition for the BM in theory and practice , the relationship between BM and other similar terms such as strategy management, value creation, revenue model, still remains fuzzy . Recently, there  is  an obvious shift  from researching the BM of a single company to designing ecosystemic BM .Essentially, the ecosystem view of BM belongs to the theories of open innovation .Because the traditional approach ignores  the  co-evolving  nature  of  business  ecosystem, the new approach views BM as a concept for explaining  the complex mechanisms of value creation inside the whole business ecosystem.  For the purposes of this article, through an analysis of representative literature, the author tries to reconcile various viewpoints to explore the BM evolution process ,especially , the dynamic created by interactions between  BM’s components.


Title : Are Social Sites Becoming More Efficacious Than Traditional Word of Mouth?

Authors : Dr. Jas Raj Bohra, Mallika Bishnoi

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With the growth and evolution of social networking sites, electronic peer-to-peer referrals have become a vital phenomenon. In contrast to the days when social media strategy was all about getting more fans, companies now see it as an important marketing tool. The recommendation on Twitter, Facebook referrals or a picture on Instagram largely affects the consumer behavior these days. Social media is now everywhere and almost everyone with internet access has an account with one of them. This study is just a small attempt to investigate and compare the reliability of recommendation made through social networking and traditional word of mouth. In this study, the data was gathered by online questionnaires, observations and personal interviews. The study shows that the social media facilitates the trust and intension to buy of the consumers. It is also observed that perceived usefulness of the site is also an important factor that contributes the buying behavior of the consumer. The paper discusses the findings and suggests ways for the marketers to drive the existing opportunity of social media in India.


Title : Single Phase Quasi-Z-Source Based Modified Cascaded Multilevel Inverter with Half-Bridge Cell

Authors : G. Prem Sunder, Dr. B. Shanthi, Dr. Alamelu Nachiappan, Dr. S. P. Natarajan

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A new Quasi-Z-Source Modified Cascaded Multilevel Inverter (qZS-MCMLI) with Half-Bridge Cell presents attractive advantages over conventional cascaded MLI with voltage boost ability and reduced switches. The new proposed topology is comprised of cascaded auxiliary units and a full H-bridge inverter, where the auxiliary unit includes half bridge cell with qZS network. With qZS network shoot-through state control, the output voltage amplitude can be boosted, which is not limited to DC source voltage summation similar to conventional cascaded MLI. The performance parameters of qZS-MCMLI with various multicarrier PWM control methods are analysed with simulation results and portrayed here.


Title : Development of Biosensors for Determination of the Total Antioxidant Capacity of Olive Leaf Extract

Authors : Oguz Bayraktar, Secil Coban

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In the present work, a laccase biosensor was investigated for determination of the oleuropein concentration that is the biological active component of olive leaf and contributes dominantly to the total antioxidant capacity. The biosensor was prepared by immobilization of laccase from Trametesversicolor by addition of cross-linking agent, glutaraldehyde, into the carbon paste electrode. The best biosensor performance was determined for biosensor having glutaraldehyde amount of 12.03 % and 5 mg/ml of laccase enzyme. The scan rate of 10 mV/s was decided to be the optimum for the amperometric detection of oleuropein based on the fastest response and maximum reduction current. Biosensor performance was also investigated for olive leave extract fractions varying in their oleuropein amounts. Therefore, biosensor performance was investigated for fractions containing different types of phenolic compounds. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), total phenol content and antioxidant capacity analyses of the fractions were also carried out for comparison with biosensor results.


Title : Automatic Generation of Test Cases Using Document Analysis Techniques

Authors : Satoshi Masuda, Tohru Matsuodani, Kazuhiko Tsuda

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In software maintenance, software testing consumes 55% of the total software maintenance work. The problem is how to reduce the software testing work while still insuring high quality software.  Some solutions involve software execution automation tools, outsourcing the testing tasks at lower labor rates. Such solutions still depend upon individual skills in generation of the test cases. In contrast, we focused on generation of test cases rather than the skills and developed a method for the automatic generation of test cases by using our natural language document analysis techniques which use text parsers for extracting and complementing parameter values from documents. We applied the method to Internet banking system maintenance projects and insurance system maintenance projects.  In this paper, we discuss our method and techniques for automatic generation of test cases and their use in these industry case studies.  Our document analysis tool helped automatically generate 95% of the required test cases from the design documents. The work of creating test cases was reduced by 48% in our case studies.


Title : Evaluation of a New PEEK Mandibular Reconstruction Plate Design for Continuity Defect Therapy by Finite Element Analysis

Authors : Konrad Mehle, Alexander W. Eckert, Daniela Gentzsch, Stefan Schwan, Christopher M. Ludtka, Wolf-Dietrich Knoll

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Jaw reconstruction following a significant loss of mandible bone, especially in the case of a mandibular angle defect, requires strict specifications for the inserted reconstruction plates and their fixation to the remaining healthy bone tissue. Despite great care being taken when using conventional titanium plates, plate failure can repeatedly occur in the form of fractures or loosening of the fixing screws.The aim of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of a human mandible angle fracture for the development of a new osteosynthesis plate system made of polyether ether ketone (PEEK). The jaw geometry of the model was reconstructed from anonymous computed tomography patient data, with a representative mandibular angle defect subsequently introduced. Based on this jaw geometry, three reconstruction plate types were integrally modeled and tested for fatigue fracture and screw loosening: a standard design titanium plate, a standard design PEEK plate, and a newly designed PEEK plate. To determine the forces acting on the jaw in the worst case scenario of clenching, individual muscle forces were separately calculated by a musculoskeletal model in the software AnyBody and applied as a changing dynamic load on the jaw models. Dynamic loading of the standard design Ti-plate demonstrated a maximum fatigue limit of 3.10 x 105 cycles and a stress of 25-50 MPa at the bone-screw interface. The alternative material presented here is the semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer PEEK, which is particularly promising as a long-term implant due to its excellent biocompatibility and a similar elastic modulus to bone. By forming the same standard design out of PEEK, stresses at the bone-screw interface were reduced to 6.6-23.5 MPa. Based on this result, an alternative design for a PEEK reconstruction plate was developed with stiffness-adapted geometry and optimized to reduce the likelihood of fatigue fractures and screw failure. Consequently, tension at the fixation points was further reduced. FEM results confirm the validity of PEEK as a reconstruction plate material and the use of alternate plate designs. Redesigned PEEK plates represent a viable alternative to the standard design titanium plates currently in use.


Title : Auxiliary Power Unit Evaluation for Tethered UAV

Authors : Wasantha Samarathunga, Guangwei Wang, Shiqin Wang

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This paper address a design evaluation problem of a main and auxiliary power unit designed for tethered unmanned aerial vehicles to avoid instantaneous power blackouts during flights.  Generally in the absence of a cable power supply, APU must be able to ensure basic functionality for critical systems that should never go off line.  The design object is to provide a simple auxiliary battery power source and switch to battery power whenever the primary cable power is unavailable and switch back to cable power when the cable power is available during the UAV flight. This power switching is a technically challenging task when the UAV operates in low altitudes and carry heavy payloads. This requires switching high currents in a high speed logic. We propose a simple and more scalable design to solve the problem. Evaluation tests are carried out on consistency of the proposed APU. The experiments results shows that the outcome of our design is basically positive for further switching speed improvements, thus possible to serve as a priory in flight mission planning over geometrically complex terrains. Further this APU could be useful for hybrid or multi power sourced UAV designs.


Title : Assessment of Assurance Service Quality Dimension and Students Satisfaction in Higher Education - A Case Study of Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati

Authors : G. Janardhana, Dr. Mamilla Rajasekhar

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The word service is related to a task accomplished through human effort to provide assistance to the needy. In the higher education sector, it is difficult to manage the institutions from the marketing point of view because the concept of customer has not been clearly defined. Students are the “customer” of a university1 but it is suggested that viewing student as customers creates some tensions as universities seem to be too aligned with business.2 Developing customer (student) satisfaction at universities level is crucial. If this is achieved, it will facilitate realisation of the strategic objectives of the university more effectively. The higher education sector ensures quality of the educational process with the help of accreditation agencies established for the purpose. The main agency which accredits university and colleges in general education is the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) established on 16th September, in 1994, under section 12 (ccc) of the UGC Act of 1956, whereas such accreditation for technical education is done by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) set up by AICTE in 1994, and for agricultural education by National Accreditation Board (NAB) set up by ICAR in 1996. Some of the other professional regulatory bodies are attempting to set up their own accreditation agencies[3].


Title : Experimental And Numerical Analysis Of Crankshaft Used in Hero Honda Splendor Motorcycle

Authors : Ms. Jagruti K. Chaudhari, Dr. R. B. Barjibhe

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In the project, 3-D finite element analysis was carried out on the modal analysis of crankshaft and the stress analysis of crankshaft to check the safety. The FEM software ANSYS workbench was used to simulate the analysis of crankshaft. The results of stress and deformation distributions and natural frequency of crankshaft were obtained by using ANSYS software. The experimental investigation also carried out for modal part and it validates with the FEM results.


Title : Seismic Characterization of Historical Buildings in San Marino Republic From Ambient Vibration Monitoring

Authors : Dott. Giacomo Peruzzi, Dott. Ing. Davide Forcellini, Dott.ssa Karen Venturini, Prof. Dario Albarello

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San Marino Historic Centre town was included in UNESCO world heritage list in 2008. The site is located in a region characterized by medium seismic hazard levels. Therefore, preventing earthquake damages is an important goal for conservation of historical buildings. From an economic point of view, this issue is fundamental in order to sustain tourism, a relevant source for the local incomes. However, effective retrofitting interventions require a reliable assessment of seismic vulnerability of single historic buildings, that is a quite complex task when old non-engineered structures are of concern. A first step in this direction is the evaluation of dynamic response to seismic loads at least in the domain of small strain levels corresponding to the beginning of damage. As several recent studies demonstrate, this task can be achieved in an efficient way by using suitable single station asynchronous ambient vibration measurements. This technique has been applied to the three middle-age towers located in San Marino and allowed identifying fundamental (elastic) resonance frequency, a key parameter for assessing seismic behaviour of historical buildings.


Title : Philosophical Problems: A Wittgensteinian Solution

Authors : Mihir Ranjan Biswas

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Most of the philosophical problems arise from the miss- interpretation of language. But it is not true that language is responsible for this problem, only user of the language is responsible. Because, if the philosopher who use language and he fail to understand the logic of language then philosophical problem comes to being. Some philosopher can say- ideal language is better to solve the philosophical problems, because ideal language is stronger in nature than the ordinary language. But, Wittgenstein proved that ordinary language is so much strong as ideal language. He said ordinary language function like exact calculus as mathematics and there are certain definite and unique rules; and ordinary language can give a precise definition of every word.                                                                                           Another source of philosophical problem is ‘craving for generality’ of word meaning. Wittgenstein by introduce ‘language game’ shows a word meaning is not unitary and unchangeable. He has shown language is constituted by the species of the rule like the cluster of properties as game.

 In this paper, I intending to show with Wittgenstein that (i) miss-interpretation of language & (ii) Craving for generality are the two fundamental problems to philosophizing for linguistic philosopher’s. The status of language is far different between the Tractatus- Logico- Philosophicus and Philosophical Investigations but, causes of the philosophical problems remain same. The earlier Wittgenstein highlighted the importance of the ‘Picture theory of meaning ’ in his book Tractatus-Logico-Philosophicus to abolish so called unitary meaning of a proposition and to set-up craving for unity by criss –cross relations of properties. And, by admitting ‘Logical Atomism’ he solved the ‘miss – interpretation’ of words in a proposition. According to later Wittgenstein the problem of philosophy is the occupational disease of linguistic philosopher. He goes on to say that when a person thinks about something philosophically, he inevitably becomes puzzled. But, he hopes that a good philosopher might have managed to avoid it. To know the fullest sense, what a philosophical problem is, entails being thus settled. A philosophical problem has the form as “I do not know my way out”to a linguistic philosopher. A linguistic philosopher if never lost or suffers he will not feel the need for further philosophical investigation. He will always try to point out the puzzles and confusion into certain philosophical notion. In philosophical Investigation Wittgenstein say “My aim is to teach you to pass from a piece of disguised non-sense to something that is patent non – sense”. He farther asserts that “philosophical confusion to a person caught in a philosophical confusion is like a man in a room who want to get out but does not know how it possible”. He (the man) tries to get out by the window but it is too tight, he tries to get out by the chimney but it is too narrow. Similarly, when one thinks about sense perception of physical objects can be directly perceived or not, the same sort of thing happens when one thinks about the nature of God, about our knowledge of other mind. In the case of puzzlement, a man in the grip of a philosophical problem is a man who is intellectually sick, one who has a conceptual illness. A philosopher seeks to be free himself from this deplorable condition by developing a theory as system to deal with the puzzles. Wittgenstein prescribed about such types of conceptually sick philosophers “show the fly (here, philosophers) the way out of the fly-bottle (here, philosophical problems)”. So, necessarily I become bound in my paper to discuss and high lighten the later wittgensteinian philosophical conception where he had introduced the concept of (i) game      (ii) Language game (iii) family resemblance (iv) forms of life etc. Lastly, it is well known to all students of philosophy that the early Wittgenstein had used ‘ideal language’ to set-up philosophical discussion on the certain way. Similarly, also, he had proved the certain ways of philosophical discussion like ‘calculus’ in his later writing by dependent on the ‘usage’ theory.


Title : Swami Vivekananda’s Views on Philosophy of Education

Authors : Bablu Barman

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12th January 1863 was the day, Narendranath was born. Swamiji would have had the same message if he was alive today, he would have used a different language but am sure his tonality and his enthusiasm would have been the same. He propagated Karma Yoga as the best Yoga for the youth. Today’s youth wants quick buck. Vivekananda’s politics and economics are all to be found in his social philosophy. And in this domain we encounter Vivekananda as the messenger of modern materialism. Kant is the father of modern materialism for the west. Vivekananda is the father of modern materialism for India. India, like Europe, was in need of a man who could say with all honesty he could command that Prakriti was no less sacred than Purusa and that the pursuit of material science and material prosperity was as godly as that of the science and activities bearing on the soul. Vivekananda had been a rationalist and a deist, though he fancied that he was a theist. His early religious associations were with the Brahmo-Samaj.Ramkrishna Paramahasa attracted; however; many members of the Brahmo-Samaj by his great psychic powers and more particularly by his passionate love of God. Real freedom is achieved not through war, but through peace. War or renunciation or isolation has a place no doubt in the scheme of life, but only a temporary place as a means to the attainment of the ultimate end which is not perpetuation of the inevitable conflict of evolution. Freedom, again, is one. Freedom from the domination of our passions and appetites is the first step in the realization of the ideal. Freedom from the fear of brother-man is the next step. Freedom from the domination of any external authority must follow next. In this way from personal freedom, through social freedom including political freedom, man must attain his real freedom. And when he attains it, he realizes, finally, that he and his God are one. This is really the message of his Master to the modern world. I think that Vivekananda greatest service is the development in his teaching of the finest features of Indian culture.Vivekananda said that there was the power of Brahman in every man that Narayana (i.e. God) wanted to have our service through the poor. Gospel showed the path of infinite freedom from man’s tiny egocentric self beyond the limits of all selfishness. This was no sermon relating to a particular ritual, nor was it a narrow injunction to be imposed upon one’s external life. This naturally contained in it protest against untouchability-not because that would make for political freedom, but because that would do away with the humiliation of man-a curse which in fact puts to shame the self of us all. Vivekananda’s gospel marked the awakening of man in his fullness and that is why it inspired our youth to the diverse courses of liberation through work and sacrifice.


Title : Sensory Quality and Acceptability in Mesquite Flour Complemented- and Mineral- Fortified Cookies Sensory Evaluation In Fortified Cookies

Authors : Macias Sara , Lopez Carlos , Costa Karina,Generoso Silvina

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This study examined the sensory properties in cookies with varying levels of Fe and Zn in prototipes of cookies in order to understand the impact of fortification. Understanding the impact of fortification can be used in without adversely affecting the  sensory properties.

These results suggest that a Fe and Zn fortification is possible in (orange and chocolate taste) cookies, made with wheat and mesquite flour and oat without significant impact to sensory perceptions.


Practical applications:

It is known that iron, calcium and zinc are regarded as micro nutrients critical minerals because they are usually present in substantially lower levels than those recommended, Local nutritional studies are in agreement with these assertions. In order to satisfy people’s daily nutrient requirements, mineral is added to some food products.  However, iron-fortified foodstuffs are characterized by dark colors, metallic taste, and low consumer acceptance.

This work was chosen to develop cookies because these are a fortification vehicle with a high level of acceptability, mainly for children, due to their attractive features.  Furthermore, because of their long shelf life, cookies can be produced and distributed at a large scale.

In this context, it seems interesting to propose that Government’s social nourishment programs include foodstuffs exhibiting nutritional characteristics that offset the deficiencies detected and sensory attributes which make them eligible.