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Volume 1 Issue 8

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Cooling Rate and Fibrous Type Striated Deformations Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Sn 8.6 wt. % Zn Alloy

Authors : F. Abd El-Salam, H.Y. Zahran , Shereen. M. Abdelaziz

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Sn-Zn alloy has been taken as one of the most important lead free solder alloys due to the toxicity and the alpha radiation of lead impurities. The influence of cooling rate on the mechanical and structural properties of Sn – 8.6 wt. % Zn lead free solder alloy was studied.  The microstructure of the quenched and slowly cooled samples of Sn – Zn alloy was examined by X – rays analysis and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is an appearance of fibrous type striated deformations on the surfaces of the quenched samples more than those on the surfaces of the slowly cooled samples. The hardening parameters were obtained through stress-strain relations in the temperature range 333-393K for slowly cooled and quenched samples. The quenching samples indicated an improvement in the mechanical properties. The energy activated the rate controlling mechanisms has been calculated and found to be 17.85 and 24.57 kJ/mol for slowly cooled and quenched samples respectively. These values were found to be close to those reported for the grain boundary sliding mechanism in Sn-based alloys. 

01-07
2

Title : Investigation About Granulating Diazinon Insecticide Remaining in The Rice Grain of Mazandaran Province in North of Iran

Authors : S. E Mahdavian , M.Morovati

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To evaluate the Diazinon remaining, 72 samples of rice at deferent stages of cultivation, harvesting and strong in the ware house, after spraying by Diazinon insecticide as long as there was no trace of insecticide in the rice, from cities of Ramsar,Tonekabon, Abbasabad (west of Mazandaran province), Amol, Mahmudabad, Fereydunkenar (East of Mazandaran province),  Selected and studied. The highest measured levels of Diazinon after spraying in August before the harvest were 1,0/95, 1/07 ppm in 2011 and 1/2 , 1, 0/97 ppm in 2012 at qualitative cultivars in cities mentioned in the west of Mazandaran province; on the after side in the East of Mazandaran province, values of 1/58 , 1/6, 1/8ppm in 2011 and 1/55, 1/52, 1/75 in 2012 at high yielding cultivars were reported. The lowest measured concentrations of the insecticide after two months of harvest were 0/09 ppm in 2011-2012, at Ramsar, and abasabad in qualitative cultivars,0/34 ppm in 2011  at Amol and *0/37 ppm at Fereydunkenar.  It was found that the biennial averages of Diazinon poison remaining in qualitative cultivars samples until one month after harvest were higher than permissible limit at Ramsar, Tonekabon and Abbasabad. The results, showed that the biennial average of Diazinon poison remaining two months after harvest at Tonekabon was higher than permissible limit hower this average was lower than permissible limit at Ramsar and Abbasabad (0/09 ppm). After there and Six months from the harvest, there was no trace of Diazinon at this studied regions. The remaining of Diazinon poison in high yielding cultivars samples of rice until two months after harvest were higher than permissible limit at Amol, Mahmudabad and Fereydunkenar. Also, based on thebiennial average in high yielding cultivars samples after three and Six months from the time of harvest, there was no trace of Diazinon at studied regions in the east of Mazandaran province.

08-12
3

Title : The Impact of Perceived Risk on Online Buying Behavior

Authors : Aishah Arshad, Maira Zafar, Iffat Fatima, Shaista Kamal Khan

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In this paper, we will learn about online shopping and consumer-shopping behavior related to it. We will learn how two major type of perceived risks i.e environmental and behavioral risk makes an impact upon the online behavior of a consumer. Online shopping potentially allows commercial Web providers to collect much more detailed consumer behavior information than they can from most physical shopping trips. Commercial Web providers can collect not only the same information available in most physical transactions—identity, credit history, employment status, legal status—but such additional information as electronic address, specific history of goods and services searched for and requested,  other Internet sites visited, and contents of the consumer’s data storage device. Secondary use of information captured online can more easily follow individual-level behavior. Highly touted by many Internet marketers is the idea that data specifically linked to a single identifiable person can be used to customize a product or service to a potential customer, in the interest of maximizing the likelihood of consumer acceptance of the offer.

13-18
4

Title : IGFBP3 in Patients with Advanced Stomach Carcinoma

Authors : Jolanta Czyzewska, Marek Alifier, Mariusz Gryko, Halina Kemona, Andrzej Kemona

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IGF peptides family plays important role in cell growth and apoptosis regulation both in normal and neoplastic cells. The aim of the study was assessment of IGFBP3 expression in main mass of tumor and metastatic lymph node in patients with advanced stage stomach carcinoma and correlation with selected prognostic and clinico-pathological factors. The study group consisted of 76 patients with advanced stage stomach carcinoma (24 women and 52 men). Mean patients’ age was 60,4 (30-78) yrs. Immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal anti IGFBP3 antibody (mouse IgG2B monoclonal anti-human IGFBP3 antibody) was used for IGF BP3 assessment. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between chosen clinical and pathological parameters and expression of IGFBP3 protein in the lymph node with metastasis. No correlation was found between expression of IGFBP3 in the main mass of tumor and patient’s gender, tumor location, depth of invasion in the wall, histological differentiation, Bormann’s classification, Lauren’s classification as well as expressions in the lymph node with metastasis. Moreover, there was no association between expression of IGFBP3 and overall postoperative survival time (data not published). Positive expression of IGFBP3 protein in main mass of tumor was observed mainly in poorly differentiated tumors located in 1/3 of middle and 1/3 lower part and in all stomach. Similarly, positive expression of IGFBP3 in lymph node metastasis was associated with diffuse type of cancers, type IV (according Bormann’s classification) and low stage of histological differentiation G3.

19-22
5

Title : Using Decision Theory and Evaluation System of Agricultural Land Suitability to Identify Aptitude of Rail Freight Terminals

Authors : Cristiano Farias Almeida, Yaeko Yamashita, Willer Luciano Carvalho

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Rail freight terminals are points of access between a region and rail transportation system. Arrangement of its physical infrastructure is important so that the transport of goods may be done in efficient way, which it will improve the international competitiveness of the products. Railway is considered more efficient in terms of cost than other transport mode. Investments in railways become essential to recognize the importance of transport with low cost with emphasis in points of access to that system. Under such aspect, this study aims to identify the aptitude of rail freight terminal using Decision Theory applied in vocational psychology studies based on choice, as well as Evaluation System of Agricultural Land Suitability. As result, it was possible to define guidelines related to the kind of terminal appropriated for the transport of products in a given region. It was noticed that it is possible to identify the flexible loading capacity of a rail terminal using multidisciplinary approaches in order to attend the productive dynamism of the regions where those terminals can be introduced.

23-30
6

Title : Investigation of Students Assertiveness Level of Vocational School

Authors : Mehmet Goral, Demet Ozturk, Elif Top

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In this study, it is aimed that the assertive level of students of Osmaniye Korkut Ata University - Vocational School of Osmaniye is investigated. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule/Inventory (RAS/RAI) is applied for determination of assertiveness condition to totally 400 students who are consist of 151 female and 249 male voluntary students. Related questions are added for determination of the socio-demographic properties of students. The schedule has totally 30 questions which are consist of 13 positive attitude questions and 17 negative attitude questions and participants can answer the questions with 6 different ways. Respondents' answers are scored with score system of RAS. The collected data are calculated with SPSS 20 statistical package software which is widely used in statistical studies in literature. According to the answers given by the students, the assertiveness status is determined with the converted scores. T test is applied for determining the difference on genders condition of participants with related to RAS results. Most of the participants’ mothers and fathers’ education level is determined as elementary school. The number of others who are graduated from high school or higher education is fewer than elementary school. The average of scored RAS results are determined as 110 points with respect to participants answers. It is determined in the score scale that assertiveness is more dominant than shyness. Also it is determined that the assertiveness increases with respect to increment of age. 3 of 13 positive attitude and 2 of 17 negative attitude questions results are meaningful in statistically. The collected results are discussed in detail.

 

31-37
7

Title : Preparation of Graphene Sponge Coated Iron Electrode for the Electrolytic Decoloration of Methylene Blue

Authors : Xiaoliang Zhang, Jingru Xie, Sheng-Tao Yang, Fumin Xue

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Electrolysis is a widely adopted technology in water treatment, while the major challenge focuses on developing better electrode materials. In this study, we reported that the hydrothermal coating of graphene sponge (GS) on Fe electrode (GS-Fe electrode) could significantly improve the decoloration performance of Fe electrode. The decoloration kinetics constant of GS-Fe electrode was five times of that of Fe electrode at the same current density. Mechanistically, the electrolytic oxidation of MB was via indirect pathway, where Cl- was oxidized into ClO- for the oxidation of other substances. Moreover, the performance of GS-Fe electrode remained nearly unchanged in the recycling evaluations. The implication to the applications of GS-Fe electrode in water treatment is discussed.

38-41
8

Title : Synchronization, Control and Stability of Fractional Order Hyperchaotic Systems in The Context of The Generalized Memory

Authors : Vladimirsky E.I., Ismailov B.I.

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In the article offered fractional kinetic model of networks with generalized memory. On the basis of fractional kinetic model network with hyperchaotic systems, embedded in a percolation structure, realized task topologically synchronization. While tracing control and stability. Criterion – “proximity” capture average return time Poincare. Shows a visualization of results.

42-48
9

Title : Free-Cooling in Seasonal Cold Accumulator

Authors : Sławomir Rabczak

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One of the ways to reduce the consumption of traditional energy sources is the use of seasonal cold accumulator that takes advantage of the geographical location in the country and allows, during the winter season, ie, November, December, January, February, March accumulate cold because of lower ambient temperature in these months. This leads to saving a significant amount of electricity and reduce operating refrigerant, which is dangerous for the environment. This paper presents a method for determining the size of cold storage with charging devices as chiller and dry-cooler. The approximate costs of device operation including the time of framework of these components has been obtain.Design seasonal cold accumulator allows to conclude that this solution has a number of economic and ecological advantages. Due to the seasonal tank design the saves on chiller, which under normal circumstances would have been selected for the highest hourly energy demand, which means that the device should be several times larger than the device that was used in the project. By selecting a small chiller the environment from hazardous refrigerants is protected, which are chlorofluorocarbons, specifically in the case of refrigerant called R- 410A.

 

49-52
10

Title : Etiological Causes of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation

Authors : Yunfu Lv, Wan Yee Lau, Haiying Wu, Shunwu Chang, NingLiu, Yejuan Li, Jie Deng

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This study aims to review the causes of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Based on review of medical literature, a scientific classification of the causes is proposed. Intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation can be divided into two categories: congenital and acquired. The former includes the five classical Todani’s congenital types. The latter can be sub-classified according to the underlying pathogenesis, the relationship with bile duct lumen/wall/extralumen, or intrabiliary pressure.

53-57
11

Title : Production of Smokeless Briquetted Fuel by Co-Carbonization of Local Coals and Bitumen

Authors : S.A. Ryemshak, A. Jauro, I.Y. Chindo, E.O. Ekenam

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Binary blend of coal-bitumen by weight (10 % bitumen and 90 % preheated coal samples at 150 oC) was developed, followed by partial briquetting and then moulded into cylindrical shape. The moulded briquetted blend was co-carbonized for about 10 hours at a temperature of 550 oC for the production of smokeless fuel. The calorific value and chemical analysis of the smokeless fuel produced were carried out and only the result of volatile matter was found to be above the acceptable range for use in a boiler system. The results of this study revealed that the use of bitumen as a bonding substance has upgraded the weakly coking and the low-grade (non-coking) coals, to a smokeless fuel briquette with high calorific values with an average combustion period of about 2.5 hours.

58-63
12

Title : Allometric Model Development for Crude Oil Spilled Southern Nigerian Mangrove Vegetation

Authors : Agberegha, Orobome L.,Nwigbo, Solomon. C.,Anyanwu, Samuel I.

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Estimation of the above ground biomass in the forest ecosystems by non-destructive means requires the development of allometric models, to allow prediction of above ground biomass from readily measurable variables such as Diameter at breast height, DBH and Height of tree. The equations developed consider the effect of spilled crude oil on the biomass components. In the present study, tree biomass components – branches, foliage and stems- measurements for 20 samples of Rhizophora were taken with the aim of developing appropriate allometric equations and thus characterized. The measurements were modified by a factor of 5. Twelve models of total and aboveground biomass were developed from destructive sampling data. The models, in some instances performed well, explaining R2 ≥ 50% of the variation in aboveground and total biomass. We developed twelve allometric models from the analysis. Some models were chosen that best fitted each tree species with high R2 ≥0.9.The total biomass estimated with DBH as the sole regressor was 1580.658kg. The total biomass estimated with H as the sole regressor was 1875.36kg. Foliage biomass as predicted by the height of tree showed a 43% increase as compared to the biomass as predicted by DBH. Branch biomass as predicted by the height of tree showed a 32% increase as compared to the branch biomass as predicted by DBH. For foliage and branch biomass, the Height of the tree seem to be a better predictor of biomass. On the contrary, the stem biomass as predicted by the DBH and Height of tree were equal.

64-68
13

Title : Under The Action Of β-Amyloid Peptide1-40 Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Membrane Ion Conductivity and its Current Dynamic Model

Authors : Tong-han Lan , Yue-jing Zhang, Xiao Li,Hao Cai, Fei -fei Yu

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In this paper the Acutely isolated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons is researched. under the mode of whole cell recording signals, Aging process of β-amyloid peptide1-40 for Na+ Current the effects, Aging process of β-amyloid peptide1-40 the concentration of as needed 0.01μmol.L-1.We clamp down on -60 mV, depolarization to - 10 mV, 0 mV, 10 mV, 20 mV, compared before and after the use of  0.01μmol.L-1 β-amyloid peptide1-40 hippocampal neurons cell membrane conductivity changing with time. sodium channels in the process of activation is to escalate rapidly open process, the deactivation is to intensify in the process of closing the slow process of sodium channels. two different before and after the main current of 0.01μmol.L-1 β-amyloid peptide1-40 (sodium ion current) established the dynamic model of the current.  

69-72
14

Title : Antifertility Effect of Alcoholic P.nigram Fruit Extract on Adult Female Wistar Rat Models

Authors : Pankaj K Nirala, Prof S.C.Dwivedi

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In this research work effect of P.nigram fruit extract on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats had been observed. The animals were divided in different group’s control and treated. The treated group further subdivided into animals treated with low and high dose respectively.The animals were administered with low (0.6ml/animal/day) and high dose (1.2ml/animal/day) of alcoholic fruit extracts of P.nigram orally to sixty days .At the end of the experiment the animals were sacrificed and ovary collected for histological and serological studies. Microscopic sections of the ovary revealed decrease in the number of follicle. Significant changes observed in the level of reproductive hormone. 

73-75
15

Title : Utilization of Maternal Health Services in Slums of Rajasthan

Authors : Arvind Singhal

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Utilization of health services is a complex behavioral phenomenon affected by multiple factors including availability, distance, cost and quality of care as well as personal attitudes, cultural beliefs and socio-economic characteristics. Mothers and children constitute a vulnerable group or special risk group in a community. This is more so with those residing in slum where the access to and affordability of healthcare is compromised on account of various reasons. These slums have limited access to basic amenities and the same time living conditions are unhygienic. These unhygienic conditions propagate the number of diseases. Most of these causes of maternal deaths are well known and are largely preventable by increasing access to and utilization of available maternal health services. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality maternal health care throughout their pregnancies.

 Present cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of slum dwellers with special reference to utilization of maternal health services and to analyze the relationship of socio-economic and demographic factors influencing utilization of maternal health services. A total of 359 residential households were set as sample size for the study in all selected cities of Rajasthan State. Home deliveries and unsafe deliveries are still widely prevalent in slums. The percentage of utilization of ANC, PNC and Family Planning (FP) services was found to be very poor and THIS IS not only affected  by lack of medical facilities but social determinants like education, income, myths and misconceptions prevalent in the society. A sustained and focused IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. The current study also highlighted the importance of access issues to healthcare seeking behaviour. These factors involved costs associated with seeking treatment, distance and the time taken to travel to healthcare facilities. 

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